Parliamentary Life during the Emirate Era (1923-1946)
Printer-friendly versionSend to friend

Political Milieu

The Emirate of Transjordan was founded in 1921. May 25th 1923 marked its independence after Britain recognized the independent government of Transjordan. On February 20th 1928, Transjordan Government signed the 1928 Treaty with the British government after lengthy and strenuous negotiations. The Treaty identified the terms of the mandate and the constitutional Jordanian Government. The Treaty was a restriction for the Government and the Parliament; it was even restraining the Prince’s mobility and decisions.

Accordingly, the Basic Law of the Transjordan Emirate was formed on April 16th 1928, which conferred upon the Emirate its constitutional legitimacy to manage the country’s affairs. Hence, the Electoral Law was issued on June 17th 1928 to elect the first Legislative Council. Five Legislative Councils were elected during the Emirate era (1923-1946) where the first one was in1929.

Legislative Authority under the Basic Law of 1928

Legislative Councils
Political Milieu
Since the foundation of the Jordanian State Jordan, genuine efforts were exerted to establish a representative council that would reflect the true representation of the country. Prince Abdullah made great efforts to establish a modern state in Jordan based on constitutional principles and rules. In 1923, His Highness formed a committee representing all of Jordan to set the Parliamentary Council and election laws. His Highness also formed another committee of scholars and legislators to form a draft Basic Law (the Constitution) in January 1923.

The country was ready for parliamentary elections after the British Government issued a declaration on May 25th 1923 announcing the intention and sympathy of the British Government to recognize Jordan’s independence and prepare a treaty between the two parties therein.
However, parliamentary elections didn’t take place until 1928 due to Britain’s delay in signing the Treaty with Jordan. Ratifying the treaty was an essential requirement for adopting the Constitution which would regulate parliamentary election. After signing the Jordanian-British Treaty on February 20th 1928, parliamentary life started to appear in Jordan.

Five elected Legislative Councils were formed during the first stage of Jordan’s history (1928-1947).

Legislative Council
The Basic Law of 1928 adopted the unicameral system (one council) consisting of 16 representatives elected under the Electoral Law. The Legislative Council also contained the Prime Minister and Cabinet members (6 ministers) - all were granted membership with the right to vote in Council.

Legislative Council Structure
The Legislative Council was composed of elected members under the electoral law which takes into account just representations of minorities. The Council also contained the Prime Minister and other Cabinet members who were not elected as representatives.

Legislative Council Chairman
While attending the Legislative Council meetings, the Prime Minister chaired all meetings. In case of his absence, the Prime Minister appointed one of the non-elected Council members to chair the meetings. If the Prime Minister did not appoint a member for that purpose, the meetings were chaired by the highest official figure of the non-elected members in the Council.

Council Term
The term of the Legislative Council was three years which may be extended up to five years by a special or provisional law that applied only to the existing Legislative Council at the time the law was issued.

Council Meetings
The Legislative Council convened for its Ordinary session on November 1st of each year. The Council also met for any special meeting called for by His Highness the Prince. The Council’s Ordinary session was three months subject to being extended or postponed by the His Highness the Prince in accordance with the Basic Law and the Bylaw.

Meetings Legal Quorum
Legislative Council resolutions were issued by the majority of present votes, excluding the Chairman, unless the Basic Law stipulates a two thirds-majority. In case of a tie in votes, the Chairman had to give the casting vote.

Legislative Council Functions
First: Legislative Function

Legislative Council authorities were limited to approving draft laws submitted by the Executive Council and drafting bills submitted by Council members. If the Council approved any bill, the law was not effective unless approved and signed by the Prince and gazetted. The Prince’s powers in ratifying laws were absolute. If the Prince refused to ratify any bill that was passed by the Council, that bill would not be in effect.

Second: Oversight Function
The Council’s oversight authorities were limited to the government’s policy and any matter related to public administration. The Council was entitled to ask questions, receive complaints and information from the citizens, and call for a discussion. Yet, the Council’s oversight powers did not allow interrogating government or practice the vote of no-confidence against it. The Council had no oversight authority on international treaties and conventions or on natural wealth concessions contracts.

First Legislative Council

Council Chairman
Hasan Khaled Abu Al Huda

Council Term
Members of the first Legislative Council were elected on April 2nd 1929 up to January 9th 1931 when it was dissolved due to rejecting the Budget annex.

Council Members

  1. Elected Members
  2. 1
    Najeeb Al-Shraideh
    2
    Abdallah Al-Kulayb
    3
    Oqla Mohammad Al-Nsuir
    4
    Najeeb Abu Al-Sha’ar
    5
    Saeed Al-Mofti
    6
    Ala’a Aldien Toqan was appointed as a director of antiquities then he resigned and Nadmi Abd Al-Hadi was elected in his place in 14-11-1929
    7
    Shams Al-Dien Sami
    8
    Saeed Al-Saleepi
    9
    Mohammad Al-Ensi
    10
    Najeeb Al-Ebraheem
    11
    Ata Allah A-Shemat
    12
    Refefan Al-Majali
    13
    Odeh Al-Qsous
    14
    Saleh Al-Oran
    15
    Hamad Bin Jazi
    16
    Methqal Al-Fayez
  3. Non-elected Members
  4. The first Legislative Council was elected under His Excellency Mr. Hasan Khaled Abu Al Huda’s Government where Cabinet members joined as non-elected members:

    1
    Hassan Khalid Abu Alhuda
    2
    Reda Tawfeeq
    3
    Hussam AlDien Jaar Allah
    4
    Aref Al’aref
    5
    Abd Alrhman Ghareeb
    6
    Alin Karkbried

    During the first Legislative Council, a new government was formed by Mr. Hasan Khaled Abu Al Huda on October 17th 1929 where Cabinet members joined the first Legislative Council:

    1
    Hassan Khalid Abu Alhuda
    2
    Ibraheem Hesham
    3
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    4
    Ala’a Aldien Toqan
    5
    Odeh Al-Qsous
    6
    Saeed Al-Mofti

Second Legislative Council

Council Chairman
Both Abdullah Siraj, and Ibrahim Hashem chaired the second Legislative Council successively.

Council Duration
Members of the second Legislative Council were elected on June 10th 1931 up to the end of its Constitutional term June 10th 1934.

Council Members

  1. Elected Members
  2. 1
    Qasem Al-Hendawi
    2
    Najee Al-Azzam
    3
    Salti Al-Ebraheem
    4
    Mohammad Al-Sa’d
    5
    Adel Al-Admeh
    6
    Hashem Khiar
    7
    Saeed Al-Mofti
    8
    Majed Al-Adwan
    9
    Saeed Abu Jaber
    10
    Hseen Khawajah
    11
    Metri Al-Zreqat
    12
    Hseen Al-Tarawneh
    13
    Refefan Al-Majali
    14
    Saleh Al-Oran
    15
    Hamad Bin Jazi
    16
    Hadetheh Al-Khreshah
  3. Non-elected Members
  4. Members of the second Legislative Council were elected under Mr. Abdullah Siraj Government where the following Cabinet Members joined the Legislative Council as non-elected members:

    1
    Abdallah Seraj
    2
    Taofeeq Abu Al-Huda
    3
    Odeh Al-Qsous
    4
    Omar Hekmat
    5
    Shokri Sha’sha’ah
    6
    Adeeb Al-Kayed

    During the period of the second Legislative Council, a new government was formed by Ibrahim Hashim as prime minister on October 18th 1933 where the following Cabinet members joined Council as non-elected members:

    1
    Ebraheem Hesham
    2
    Odeh Al-Qsous
    3
    Saeed Al-Mofti
    4
    Shokri Sha’sha’ah
    5
    Hashem Khiar
    6
    Qasem Al-Hendawi

Third Legislative Council

Council Chairman
Ibrahim Hashem

Council Duration
Members of the third Legislative Council were elected on October 16th 1934 and completed its Constitutional term on October 16th 1937.

1

Ibrahim Hashem
2

Odeh Al-Qsous
3

Saeed Al-Mufti
4

Shukri Sha'sha'h
5

Hashem Khiar
6

Qasem Al-Hindawi

Legislative Council Members

  1. Elected Members
  2. 1
    Mahmud Al-Fniash
    2
    Abdullah Al-Kulayb
    3
    Falah Al-Thaher
    4
    Suleyman Al-Kaleel
    5
    Alhajj Fawzi Al-Nabelsi
    6
    Majed Al-Adwan
    7
    Nathmi Abdulhadi
    8
    Alhajj As'ad Al- Kaleel
    9
    Fawzi Al-Mulqi
    10
    Wasef Al-Bsharat
    11
    Refefan Al-Majali
    12
    Metri Al-Zraiqat
    13
    Salih Al-Oran
    14
    Mahmud Al-Kreshan
    15
    Hamad Bin Jazi
    16
    Methqal Al-Faiez
  3. Non-elected Members
  4. Members of the third Legislative Council were elected under his Excellency Mr. Ibrahim Hashem Government where the following Cabinet members joined the Council as non-elected members:

    1

    Ibrahim Hashem
    2

    Odeh Al-Qsous
    3

    Saeed Al-Mufti
    4

    Shukri Sha'sha'h
    5

    Hashem Khiar
    6

    Qasem Al-Hindawi

Fourth Legislative Council

Council Chairman
Two successive chairmen presided over the fourth Legislative Council, Ibrahim Hashem, and Tawfeeq Abu Al Huda.

Council Term
Members of the fourth Legislative Council were elected on October 16th 1937 and completed its Constitutional term on to October 16th 1940. The Council term was extended two more years ending on October 16th 1942.

Council Members

  1. Elected Members
  2. 1
    Mahmud Al-Fniash
    2
    Mahmud Al-Awad
    3
    Salti Al-Ibrahim
    4
    Abdallah Alkulayb was appointed a governor on 2/8/1941, and Muhammad Al-Sa'd was elected instead of him.
    5
    Majed Al-Adwan
    6
    Sabri Tabba'
    7
    Alhajj Soud Al-Nablsi
    8
    Shawkat Hameed was appointed a governor on 6/9/1941, and Omar Hekmat was elected instead of him.
    9
    Hessen Khawajah
    10
    Khaleel Al-Sokar
    11
    Refefan Al-Majali
    12
    Salih Al-Oran
    13
    Mahmud Al-Kreshan
    14
    Ibrahim Al-Sharayhah
    15
    Hamad Bin Jazi
    16
    Hadeethah Al-khraishah
  3. Non-elected Members
    The fourth Legislative Council was elected under his Excellency Mr. Ibrahim Hashem Government where the following Cabinet members joined the Council as non-elected members:
  4. 1
    Ibrahim Hashem
    2
    Odeh Al-Qsous
    3
    Saeed Al-Mufti
    4
    Shukri Sha'sha'h
    5
    Hashem Khiar
    6
    Qasem Al-Hindawi

During council four new Cabinets were formed headed by Tawfeeq Abu Al Huda where Cabinet members joined the Council as non-elected members.
The Governments were as follows:

  1. *The First Government (28/9/1938-6/8/1939) the fourth Legislative

  2. 1
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    2
    Hashem Khiar
    3
    Ahmad Olwi Al-Saqaf
    4
    Abdullah Al-Hmoud
    5
    Khalaf Al-Tall
    6
    Nuqoula Ghanama
  3. *The Second Government (6/8/1939 – 24/9/1940)
  4. 1
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    2
    Ahmad Olwi Al-Saqaf
    3
    Nuqoula Ghanama
    4
    Rasheeed Al-Madfa'i
    5
    Abdullah Al-Nemer
    6
    Ali Al-Kayed
  5. *The Third Government (25/9/1940-27/7/1941)
  6. 1
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    2
    Omar Hekmat
    3
    Shukri Sha'sha'ah
    4
    Ahmad Olwi Al-Saqaf
    5
    Nuqoula Ghanama
    6
    Ali Al-Kayed
  7. *The Fourth Government (29/7/1941-18/5/1943)
  8. 1
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    2
    Ahmad Olwi Al-Saqaf
    3
    Nuqoula Ghanama
    4
    Abdul-Muhdi Al-Shamayleh
    5
    Sameer Al-Rifai
    6
    Abdullah Kolayb Al-Shraideh

Fifth Legislative Council

Council Chairman
The fifth Legislative Council was headed by Tawfeeq Abu Al Huda followed by Samir Rifai, and later by Ibrahim Hashem.

Council Term
The fifth Legislative Council was elected on October 20th 1942 and completed its Constitutional term on October 20th 1945. This Council was extended for two more years till October 20th 1947.

Council Members

  1. Elected Members
  2. 1
    Salim Al-Hindawi
    2
    Abdul-Qader Al-Tall
    3
    Mosa Al-Awad Hejazi
    4
    Isa Al-Awad
    5
    Majed Al-Adwan was dead on 2/6/1946 then Noffan Al-So'ud was elected instead of him on 16/9/1946.
    6
    Alhajj Soud Al-Nablsi
    7
    Sabri Tabba'
    8
    Fawzi Al-Mufti
    9
    Hessen Khawajah
    10
    Salameh Al-Twall
    11
    Refefan Al-Majali was dead on 24/1/1945 then M'arek Al-Majali was elected instead of him on 1/9/1945.
    12
    Hessen Al-Tarawneh
    13
    Yosef Al-Akshah
    14
    Mahmud Al-Kraishan
    15
    Hamad Bin Jazi
    16
    Ghdoub Al-Zaben
  3. Non-elected Members
  4. The fifth Legislative Council was elected under Mr. Tawfeeq Abu Al Huda Government where the following Cabinet members joined the Council as non-elected members:

    1
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    2
    Ahmad Olwi Al-Saqaf
    3
    Nuqoula Ghanama
    4
    Abdul-Muhdi Al-Shamayleh
    5
    Sameer Al-Rifai
    6
    Abdullah Kolayb Al-Shraideh

During the fifth Legislative Council, four new Governments were formed where Cabinet members joined the Legislative Council as non-elected members. These governments were:

  1. * The 1st Government (9/5/1943 - 14/10/1944)
  2. 1
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    2
    Shukri Sha'sha'ah
    3
    Ahmad Olwi Al-Saqaf
    4
    Sameer Al-Rifai
    5
    Abdul-Rahman Rshaidat
    6
    Hanna Al-Qsous
  3. * The 2nd Government (15/10/1944 - 18/5/1945)
  4. 1
    Sameer Al-Rifai
    2
    Saeed Al-Mufti
    3
    Hashem Khair
    4
    Nuqoula Ghanama
    5
    Fahmi Hashem
    6
    Msalam Al'ttar
  5. * The 3rd Government (19/5/1945-1/2/1947)
  6. 1
    Ibrahim Hashem
    2
    Tawfeeq Abu Al-Huda
    3
    Saeed Al-Mufti
    4
    Nuqoula Ghanama
    5
    Fahmi Hashem
    6
    Msalam Al'ttar
  7. * The 4th Government (4/2/1947-27/12/1947)
  8. 1
    Sameer Al-Rifai
    2
    Omar Al'ttar
    3
    Muhammad Al-Ameen Al-Shanqiti
    4
    Abbas Mirza
    5
    Suleyman Al-Nabelsi
    9
    Bsharah Ghaseeb
Copyright © 2014 The Jordanian Parliament. All Rights Reserved